Recent Research on the Brain and Early Childhood Development
As research in neuroscience advances, our understanding of the brain and healthy brain development continues to change. The following are some recent reports and news releases highlighting cutting-edge research related to the brain and child development. Examples of recent brain research are also highlighted on the BBB Home Page.
Building structural connections in a young child’s developing brain is essential for higher-order brain functioning.
The brain activity patterns of adults and children are different when making inferences. While adults create new memories with inferences built into them, children instead create memories separately to use in future inference making.
Research shows that children as young as age 6 understand what practice is and deliberately practice for the future.
Even though children cannot actively remember life events before the age of 3 or 4, recent research shows that babies begin using the hippocampus, the brain’s memory center, as young as 3 months old.
Research with twins suggests that genetics heavily influence gaze patterns, which contribute to children’s attention and interaction with the environment.
Glial cells, the support cells that help neurons function, also play a role in learning and memory in mice.
Children who believe their intelligence can grow are more likely to learn from their mistakes than children who think their intelligence is fixed.
Scientists have discovered how the brain evolved to expand the surface area of the neocortex in order to make humans more intelligent, and how intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders develop when this process does not occur as expected.
New research suggests that infants may make rational deductions, showing surprise when an unexpected outcome occurred.
In a sample of teenagers, students who did not take math classes had lowered amounts of chemicals important for brain plasticity.
A baby’s memory can depend on their mood. Babies who learned something while in one mood, such as happy, recalled it better when they were happy again later.
When mothers participate in a mindfulness program during pregnancy, their infants showed signs of healthier stress responses at 6 months old.
Children who are spanked show greater activity in brain regions that respond to threats.
Brain Disorders and Disabilities
Researchers have discovered that child abuse changes the thickness of the myelin coating of axons in the brain. These changes could have long-lasting negative effects on emotion regulation and attachment.
Recent research has found that some areas of the brain differ between boys and girls diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Mothers who drink even small amounts of alcohol during pregnancy can increase the risk of alcoholism in the next three generations.
Parents who faced severe stress or trauma as children are more likely to have children with ADHD and mental health issues.
A recent MRI study found the brains of newborn babies to be smaller if their mother experienced poverty and lived in a neighborhood with high crime rates.
Developmental differences in late-preterm babies may not show up until after age 2.
Many parents of premature babies fear that their child will have later difficulties in school, but research shows that most babies born prematurely are ready for kindergarten on time and achieve similar academic outcomes to full-term babies.
Recent research has found brain structures differ between girls and boys with autism.
There are different autism genes that have been identified, but all of them have the same impact on brain development.
The visual word form area (VWFA) in the language center of the brain is prewired to see words and letters beginning at birth.
Toddlers in noisy environments may have more difficulty learning new words.
Regularly reading out loud to children, beginning in infancy, can increase vocabulary and reading skills even before they enter school.
What does toddlers’ use of “a” and “the” tell us about their language development?
People who stutter have less blood flow to Broca’s area, which controls productive language in the brain.
Increasing children’s aerobic exercise can help with children’s vocabulary growth.
Unlike adults, babies and young children use both sides of their brains to process language.
Researchers have found a significant relationship between poor sleep in adolescence and later mental health issues. Teens who experience very poor sleep are more likely to experience poor mental health in later life.
Researchers have found more evidence that being exposed to air pollution is associated with poorer cognitive performance in children.
Spending time outdoors in the fresh air can have positive effects on general well-being and brain structure, a new research study shows.
Babies’ brains are more active in sleep than previously thought. The twitching of limbs during REM sleep helps babies control motor movements when awake. A recent study found this twitching also occurs during a new sleep stage called “quiet sleep.”
Any amount of breastfeeding can be beneficial for baby. Even babies who had only been breastfed for a few days had lower blood pressure as toddlers compared to their peers who had not been breastfed at all.
Even though many parents expect their babies to sleep through the night by 6 months, sleep patterns vary greatly from baby to baby, and even from night to night in the same baby.
A new study shows that a longer period of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with decreased odds of current asthma.
Preschoolers with better fine and gross motor skills perform better on kindergarten readiness measures.
Most parents have experienced frustration when their infants cry excessively and refuse to sleep. Scientists have found that the best strategy to calm them down is by holding and walking with them for five minutes. Other strategies, like being held while sitting, were less effective.
Do physical activity interventions lead to improved cognitive skills in children? Researchers who re-analyzed data from 3 studies found that regular exercise improves cognition more in children with poor cognitive performance before the intervention.
Why do some 4- and 5-year-olds still nap every afternoon, while others start giving up afternoon naps at age 3? Sleep scientists have a new theory that transitioning out of naps is not about age as much as brain development.
Recent research has found that infants who sleep longer and wake up fewer times during the night are not as likely to be overweight.
Researchers have discovered that many infants begin eating complementary foods too soon. Current recommendations suggest introducing solid foods to infants at 6 months of age.
Attachment, Relationships, and Social-Emotional Development
Research suggests that both older and younger siblings contribute to the development of empathy in each other.
Harsh parenting practices can have long-term impacts on brain development. Increased hitting, shaking, yelling, and anger are related to smaller brain structures in adolescence.
Research suggests that infants learn prosocial behavior through imitation. When they observe helping behavior, they are more likely to be helpful.
Children notice race years before many adults want to talk about it. Parents believe children should be at least 5 before they bring up the conversation of race, but infants and preschoolers may already be aware of race.
Learning through guided play with an adult can be just as beneficial, if not more, compared to traditional classroom instruction.
The use of pretend play has been found to help aid in children’s socioemotional development.
Research shows the quality of time spent in recess matters just as much as the amount of time spent outside. Having meaningful opportunities for play at school away from the classroom impacts a child’s socioemotional development.
Play and Music
Music training positively changes children’s brain structure, leading to lasting benefits.
Recent research studying the brains of secondary school students found different brain activity patterns in children who had been playing music from a young age. A link between the music and language processing areas of the brain was also discovered.
Infant-directed song may have evolved as a way for adults to signal to infants that their needs are being met.
A recent study found that playful educational opportunities led by adults were just as, if not more, effective as classroom instruction in promoting literacy, numeracy and social skills.
Consistency and Stress
Researchers using an experimental model of a newborn brain damaged by oxygen deprivation at birth have discovered that an enriched environment – with increased opportunities for physical activity, socialization and exploring novel stimuli – helped lessen the brain’s deficits.
Child abuse and neglect may be related to life expectancy. People who experience sexual abuse are at higher risk for dying in middle age.
Children who experience abuse or other traumatic experiences at an earlier age show markers of rapid biological aging.
Although the COVID-19 pandemic has affected everyone’s life, children are especially struggling because their agency, or ability to control and make choices within adult-imposed limits, has been reduced. As children return to school and other everyday activities, giving them time for play—and setting up chances to exercise reasonable ‘agency’ during this transition—are two key ways to support their well-being.
Mothers’ stress levels during pregnancy can increase their child’s risk of developing disease throughout their lifetime by altering the developing baby’s mitochondrial DNA.
Regular bedtimes, mealtimes, and other routines help preschoolers regulate emotions, which may help reduce obesity risk later in life.
Elementary students whose teachers are experiencing burnout tend to have higher cortisol levels, indicating more stress.
The social isolation resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic may affect children’s language acquisition and levels of screen time.
Infants in homes with domestic violence have been found to have poorer academic outcomes because of developmental delays in the brain.
Childhood poverty can have lasting impacts on brain development as adults who grew up impoverished were found to have smaller subcortical brain regions.